Dr. Dallas Reports on Accidental Pet Poisoning

Dr. Dallas Reports on Accidental Pet Poisoning

Allow me to set up a scenario for you:

You are just getting home from work, or grocery shopping, or picking up the kids, or working outside… In any case, when you walk through the door you are met with a scene that no pet owner ever wishes to encounter: your dog or cat has gotten into something. If you are lucky, it is just a spilled pile of mail, or maybe a torn up pillow. But what if it’s not? What if they have gotten into some medications, household cleaners, or maybe even a box of chocolates?

Do you know what to do in a situation where you pet has potentially ingested something that could do them serious harm?

Each year, thousands of pets in North America suffer accidental ingestion of potentially deadly substances that have been found in and around their home. The key to saving your pet from an unintentional poisoning is education. In this blog, we will discuss how to prevent pet poisoning incidents and what to do if you believe that your pet has ingested something toxic.

Not everyone is lucky enough to only have a few pillows destroyed…

PREVENTION

An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.

– Benjamin Franklin

The best way of saving yourself the headache (and potential heartache) of a pet accidentally ingesting something toxic is to be aware of what items within your home are poisonous to your animals and making sure that they are safely stored in a place that your dog or cat cannot get to.

Toxic Substances

A full list of substances toxic to dogs and cats can be found here, but the most common ingested items are:

  • Alcohol
  • Antifreeze
  • Chocolate
  • Fertilizer
  • Lilies
  • Mouse/Rat Poison and
  • Onions and Garlic
  • Tea Tree Oil
  • Tylenol (acetaminophen)
  • Advil (ibuprofen)

Remove Temptation

Once you have familiarized yourself with what items in the home can be a potential danger to your pet(s), the next step is to do something about them. You need to eliminate your pet’s access to these items, which can be accomplished in a number of ways:

  • Crate your pet when you are not able to supervise them.
  • Make use of baby gates or other barriers to stop animals from entering areas where harmful items are kept.
  • Store dangerous items in a locked cupboard, or out of reach entirely (even from counter-surfing animals) on a high shelf.
  • Swap out the use of rodenticides and insecticides with traps but keep them far from your pet’s access. Don’t forget unwanted critters can track poisons to other locations around the home if they walk through them. Also, an avid mouser may potentially ingest mouse/rat poison if they catch the offender after it has been exposed.
  • Keep the clutter to a minimum – meaning, remove any enticing items (ie. chocolates, scented lotions, flavoured medications) from counters and side tables.
  • Invest in trashcans with a secured lid, or keep them behind closed cupboard doors or in inaccessible rooms.
  • Clean up spills immediately (ie. antifreeze or de-icers in the garage, coffee grinds or table salt in the kitchen).
  • Close toilet lids after use, especially if you use automatic toilet bowl cleaner in the tank, or stick-on pucks on the inside of the bowl.
  • Eliminate toxic flowers from any bouquets or potted plants received and displayed.
  • Hang your purse out of reach on a hook, or store in a closed closet.
  • Keep pets off of lawns that have been sprayed with commercial herbicides.
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When they are not being supervised, the best place for a mischievous pup is their crate!

Be Ready

It is always recommended that you have your pet’s information on-hand. This means an accurate description of your pet and their medical history available in case you, or anyone else, need to go to the nearest veterinary clinic in an emergency situation. Keep a folder handy that is clearly labelled and indicates the following:

  • Pet’s Name, including the last name they are registered with. It is especially important to keep registered last names the same if you go to more than one clinic.
  • Age, Sex and Breed/Species
  • Up-to-date Weight
  • List of any underlying Medical Conditions
  • List of any Current Medications

It is also important to have necessary contact information readily available. This would include the name of your veterinarian and their clinic’s phone number and address, as well as an after-hours emergency clinic should you require assistance outside of regular business hours. The information for emergency services such as the Pet Poison Helpline would also be useful. Be sure to include all of your own contact information as well, in case it is a house-sitter or dog-walker that has encountered the emergency situation.

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WHAT TO DO

Despite your best efforts the worst has happened – you suspect your pet has ingested something that they shouldn’t have and you are concerned that it could pose a serious health risk. There are a number of steps that you need to take, and you need to act fast. Time is a factor here, even if your pet is not yet displaying symptoms of poisoning. The sooner your pet is diagnosed, the sooner they can be treated and the better chance they have of being okay.

Tend to the Area

First things first, safely remove your pet from the immediate area in order to eliminate continued exposure to (or ingestion of) the potentially toxic material. Also remove any other pets or children that could be harmed by exposure to the substance in question. If possible, quarantine the area as you may not have time to adequately clean it in the moment.

Tend to the Animal

Next, check that your pet is safe. Make sure they are breathing and acting normally. Resist the temptation to give them any type of home remedy or to induce vomiting yourself. Either of these can be very dangerous and you may inadvertently cause more harm than good.

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Get Help

Contact your veterinarian or the Pet Poison Helpline immediately for further instructions (if you are travelling with your pet, be sure to research while you are making travel plans where the nearest veterinary clinic and emergency animal hospital are located). It would be prudent to be prepared with as much information as possible regarding the incident. This information will be dependent on the situation and the material ingested. Here is a basic guideline on what you may be asked about the material ingested:

  • Plant – What is the name of the plant? Is it a houseplant, outdoor plant or weed? Which part of the plant was ingested (bulb, leaves, flowers, stem, fruit)? How much was consumed?
  • Medication – What is the name of the drug? What is the milligram strength? How much of medication was potentially consumed (ie. how many tablets were in the bottle and how many are remaining)?
  • Chemical – What is the brand name of the product? What are the active ingredients and concentration of those ingredients? What are the label warnings? How much was ingested (ie. what was the original weight of the product and how much remains)?

If you need to immediately go to a veterinarian and do not have time to contact them, be sure to collect up all the wrappers/packaging from the item and take them with you.

You will most likely also be asked about the scenario in which the material was consumed as well. Be prepared to answer the following questions:

  • How long ago did ingestion occur? If your pet was unattended when it happened, how long were they alone (thus how long ago could they have potentially gotten into the product)?
  • Is your pet currently displaying any abnormal behaviour, such as pawing at their mouth, pacing, whining, drooling, etc.?

While these questions may be tough to answer, it is important that you do so calmly and to the best of your ability in order to receive the best guidance and care for your pet.

We hope that you will never have to refer to this guide, but if you do, here are some names and numbers that we feel you should always have accessible:

Snelgrove Veterinary Services (That’s us!)
Tel.: 905-846-3316
11526 Hurontario Street, Brampton
Located on Hwy 10, South of Mayfield Road and North of Concervation Drive/Wanless Street

Emergency Veterinary Clinic of Brampton (After-hours clinic)
Tel.: 905-495-9907
1 Wexford Drive, Unit 10, Brampton
Located in the Wexford Square Plaza, on Highway 10 just South of Bovaird Drive

Pet Poison Helpline (Open 24 hours)
Tel.: 855-764-7661

Mississauga Oakville Veterinary Emergency Hospital (Open 24 hours)
Tel.: 905-829-9444
2285 Bristol Circle, Oakville

404 Veterinary Emergency + Referral Hospital (Open 24 hours)
Tel.: 905-953-1933
510 Harry Walker Parkway South, Newmarket

Toronto Veterinary Emergency Hospital (Open 24 hours)
Tel.: 416-247-8387
21 Rolark Drive, Scarborough

Veterinary Emergency Clinic (South) (Open 24 hours)
Tel.: 416-920-2002
920 Yonge Street, Suite 117, Toronto

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Dogs and cats are not small humans…

…and other pet toxin facts. An informative blog from Dr. Judith da Costa.

Recently I attended a lecture on pet poisons so I decided to write a blog about it. Most of the time when pets come into contact with toxins it is accidental. Occasionally however, well-meaning owners give or apply toxins to their pets. Unfortunately things that are safe, or even considered healthy for us, can be dangerous (even fatal!) to our pets. I will cover a small, random selection of these.

Grapes, Raisins and Currants

In the past several years information has come out about the toxic properties of grapes, raisins and some currants when eaten by dogs. The side effects caused by eating the above are; vomiting, anorexia, lethargy and diarrhea. Unfortunately, eating grapes, raisin and certain types of currants can cause acute renal failure leading to the death of the dog. Why this happens is unknown. The specific toxin has yet to be identified. Not all dogs are affected. At this time we have no way of knowing which dogs will be affected. Decontamination (inducing vomiting), IV fluids and supportive care are the current treatment recommendations. Blood work is done to determine the effect the grapes, raisins or currants have had on the kidneys.

Acetaminophen (a.k.a. Tylenol)

Another pet toxin to be concerned about is acetaminophen. So there is no confusion I will be very blunt. Acetaminophen is deadly to cats! Acetaminophen is the generic name for this human medication. Trades names include Tylenol and Paracetamol. Acetaminophen is also toxic to dogs. Most pharmacist don’t know that acetaminophen is toxic to cats and dogs. Side effects include respiratory distress, brown mucus membranes, lethargy, vomiting and yellow mucus membranes. In simple terms, cats die from suffocation, because their red blood cells are not able to carry oxygen. Only a very small amount of acetaminophen will cause this to happen. In dogs, ingestion of acetaminophen can cause liver failure. If your pet has consumed acetaminophen seek veterinary treatment immediately.

Tea Tree Oil

Many people are surprised to learn that Tea Tree oil (also known as Melaleuca oil) is toxic to dogs and cats. People apply Tea Tree oil to themselves as an herbal remedy. Sides effects of applying Tea Tree oil to dogs and cats include: muscle tremors, liver damage, hypothermia, slow heart rates, weakness, and central nervous system depression that can lead to coma. Dogs and cats have died when a formulation of a 100 % Tea Tree oil has been applied to their coats. Treatment includes bathing with liquid dishwashing detergent and IV fluids and supportive medications.

Chocolate

Chocolate is a more familiar pet toxin. Usually the pet consumes the chocolate by accident. The more pure the chocolate is, the more dangerous it is for dogs and cats. Dark chocolate is said to have health benefits for humans but this is absolutely not true for dogs and cats. The two toxins in chocolate are Theobromine and caffeine. Unsweetened baking chocolate can have 10 times as much Theobromine as milk chocolate. Side effects include vomiting, diarrhea, drinking and urinating a lot, staggering, irregular heart rhythm, seizures, tremors and death. Treatment includes inducing vomiting if the chocolate was eaten in the past 6 hours, giving activated charcoal and medications to treat the symptoms. Always store chocolate in a safe location.

Get Help

If you have any questions or concerns about anything that might be toxic to your pets, please call us at Snelgrove Veterinary Services at (905) 846 – 3316. There is also the Pet Poison Helpline at (800) 213 – 6680. (Note, there is $35 US fee for the Helpline). In a non-emergency situation you are more than welcome to read our Lifelearn Client Handouts on our web-site. Just click on “Pet Health” and type in any topic that you are interested in. These handouts are researched by the University of Guelph.

Dr. Judy da Costa

Easter – Chocolate and lilies

With Easter just around the corner, we just wanted to remind everyone about the danger of chocolate, wrappers and candy for your dog and worse yet, the ever popular Lily flower to your cat. PicMonkey Collage

Everyone knows that chocolate is toxic to dogs but even candy and their wrappers can give your pet an upset stomach. Be sure to keep these tasty treats away from your dog this Easter. Be especially careful when hiding Easter treats that it’s your child that finds them, not your pet.

With regards to flowers, lilies are extremely, and we can’t emphasize the extremely enough, toxic to cats. Everything about a lily, from its stem to petals, flower to pollen can cause a cat to go into kidney failure. Even the minutest amount can cause this condition.

This Easter season, please keep lilies out of your home for the sake of your cat.

If you have any further questions feel free to call us, Snelgrove Vet 905-846-3316 or would like to get more information, take a look through our pet health section of our website www.snelgrovevet.com

Holiday Season – cats

Household Hazards – Holiday Safety Tips for Cat Owners

During times of celebration, friends and family often gather in our homes. At these times, it is easy to overlook potential hazards to your cat’s health and safety. In order to prevent mishaps for your cuddly companions, it is important that you recognize these hidden dangers.

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My cat enjoys playing with ribbons, tinsel, and other decorations. Is this okay?

Most cats enjoy playing with ribbons, string, and tinsel, especially if they are shiny or moving. Kittens and young cats tend to be more curious and playful, and appear to see these items as toys that need to be chased, pounced upon, chewed or swallowed. While chasing and pouncing are healthy physical activities for cats, chewing and swallowing ribbons can be harmful.

“If you want to let your kitten play with string or ribbon, only allow it to play with the item while under your direct supervision.”

When swallowed, these “linear foreign bodies” can become entangled in the intestinal tract, leading to bunching of the intestines as the body tries unsuccessfully to pass the string or ribbon. With each intestinal contraction, the rough or abrasive material rubs against the walls of the intestines, causing inflammation. Eventually, the material can even cut through the intestinal wall. This is a life-threatening emergency requiring surgical intervention. If you want to let your kitten play with string or ribbon, only allow it to play with the item while under your direct supervision. Better yet, don’t even encourage this sort of play!

 

My cat likes to chew on cords. Can this be harmful?

Dangling cords of various types are tempting to cats that like to play with string, or kittens that are teething and are interested in chewing. Cats have extremely sharp teeth that can easily penetrate the insulation around electric light cords or extension cords. If this happens, it could result in a severe burn to the tongue or an electrical shock that could damage the lungs or heart. This is an emergency requiring immediate veterinary attention.

 

household_hazards_-_holiday_safety_tips_for_cat_owners-2I’ve heard that chocolate is poisonous to animals. Is this true?

Many people do not realize that chocolate can be a poison when eaten in large amounts, even to people! Chocolate contains a chemical called theobromine, which has caffeine-like activities. Theobromine is used medicinally as a diuretic, heart stimulant, blood vessel dilator, and a smooth muscle relaxant. Unsweetened or baking chocolate contains a much higher amount of the potentially toxic theobromine than milk chocolate (approximately 10 times the amount on average). For the average cat, weighing 11 pounds or 5 kg, the toxic amount of milk chocolate is approximately 11 ounces, but 1-2 squares of baking chocolate or high quality dark chocolate has the potential to be fatal. An 8-week old kitten usually weighs 1-2 pounds (less than 1 kg), and can be poisoned by only 1 ounce of milk chocolate! Clinical signs of chocolate poisoning include hyperexcitability, nervousness, vomiting, and diarrhea. In severe overdoses, the only symptom may be sudden death.

 

What sort of festive plants are toxic to cats?

household_hazards_-_holiday_safety_tips_for_cat_owners-3Poinsettia sap can be irritating to the mouth and stomach of the cat that chews on the leaves or stems of this festive plant. Contrary to popular belief, poinsettia is not specifically toxic, but can cause intestinal upset.

Some mistletoe species are toxic, causing liver failure or seizures, while other species are only irritating to the intestinal tract if ingested. The fact that there are several types of mistletoe makes it difficult to predict the clinical signs of poisoning with this popular holiday trimming. It is wise to consider mistletoe to be a hazardous substance and keep it out of reach of pets and children.

All parts of many plants belonging to the lily family are highly toxic to cats. Because of this risk, it is best to prevent your cat or kitten from chewing on peace lilies, Christmas lilies, or other plants belonging to this family.

Other seasonal plants that are toxic to cats include daffodils, narcissi, and spring bulbs that are commonly ‘forced’ to bloom during the winter that bring a ‘breath of springtime’ into our homes.

 

I like to give my cat some of our dinner as a treat on special occasions. Is there anything I should avoid?

We all like to include our pets in holiday meals along with the rest of the family, but try to keep in mind that sudden rich diet changes are likely to upset a pet’s stomach. Vomiting and diarrhea are not common medical problems that veterinarians see during any holiday time, and especially between Thanksgiving and New Year’s Day. If you wish to feed your cat a special treat, give her only a small amount of lean meat. If you feed leftovers that contain a lot of fat, the pancreas may become overworked and inflamed. This serious condition is known as pancreatitis and usually requires hospitalization and intensive medical treatment. Also make sure that any string or packaging that was used during the preparation of roasts or turkeys is safely disposed of in a sealed garbage container. Most cats can’t resist digging these well-flavored items out and eating them, potentially causing an intestinal obstruction.

It’s a good idea to keep your pets out of the kitchen during the hustle and bustle of the season. The last thing you want is for them to get underfoot and get burned or otherwise injured. By observing a few commonsense guidelines, you can share a safe and healthy celebration with your cat and give thanks for the companionship you enjoy with your four-legged family members.

Ernest Ward, DVM
© Copyright 2009 Lifelearn Inc. Used and/or modified with permission under license.